Why are cytologic studies not recommended?

Case study: Marcia is a 28 year old female who comes in with a complaint of nipple drainage. She says that the discharge started about three

months ago and it appears milky. She says that she has also felt tired, and has been constipated lately. Her periods have been very light. She is worried that she “might have cancer”. ***PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS*** What are the three classifications of nipple

discharge? Based on the above description, what classification does this fit into? Aside from the above concerns, name three other things this woman may be experiencing. Women with a strong family history of breast cancer may be candidates for genetic testing for __________

mutations. You do a thorough breast examination on this pt. What are two important components of this exam on anyone with nipple drainage? You do a complete medication history as well as elicit past medical history, including endocrine and reproductive history. What are four important parts of the exam on this pt and why? Name five chemical agents that can cause nipple discharge and galactorrhea. What should the nipple

discharge be tested for? Why are cytologic studies not recommended? Should diagnostic mammography be performed? Following diagnostic mammography, what other imaging study might be performed and why? What are two important lab tests to obtain? When would an MRI of the brain be indicated? Name three possible diagnoses for this patient. If galactorrhea is suspected due as a result of a chemical origin, what must be done? Galactorrhea is more common in _____________ (premenopausal/postmenopausal) women. All patients with spontaneous or

unilateral nipple discharge regardless of color, should be referred for surgical evaluation. Patients should be educated that most causes of breast discharge are malignant. In women with galactorrhea, where the prolactin level is normal and menses are normal, women should be informed of the normal physiologic association with ______________________. Why is nipple discharge so concerning to most women? Let me know if you have any questions or concerns